Researchers have developed a single measure of economic, cultural, and political dimensions known as “structural heterotrophy”, interwoven with oppression at multiple levels to benefit the men and heterosexual individuals; it extends the current study to structural cross-section.
Measures include state-level LGP policies, family planning policies and funding flows, and indicators of structural sexism (e.g., economic and political status of women versus men). Birth outcomes were collected from four-wave data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.
There is increasing evidence that sexism and structural discrimination against LGBT women and populations are associated with worse health outcomes. It is well known that exposure to discrimination and stress can negatively affect birth outcomes.
Philbin, an associate professor of social sciences at Columbia Mailman, said: “Our research goes beyond the individual’s experience of discrimination to look at how oppressive systems reinforce each other and lead to to poor birth outcomes,” said Philbin, assistant professor of social sciences at Columbia Mailman. “A pregnant person need not identify or ‘feel’ their genetic environment potentially detrimental to that pregnancy being negatively affected.”
Structural heterotrophic diversity regimens may limit access to reproductive health care or shape the type of care provided; it can limit access to socioeconomic opportunities, and it can shape reproductive terms and expectations – all of which can contribute to adverse fertility outcomes.
An example can be found in the notion that the woman’s role is that of a mother who marries a man; heteropatriarchy constructs create a system that enforces that rule (for example, by prohibiting abortion, same-sex marriage, or adoption).
Access to family planning is strongly associated with fertility effects. People often avoid having children for reasons related to birth defects, including financial insecurity, mental health problems, and partnership abuse. A person who terminates a pregnancy due to health problems directly related to the pregnancy.
The researchers found no statistical difference between how compatriot allergies were affected in terms of individuals’ gender identity; All pregnant women have side effects of gene allergies at birth. This suggests that the negative effects of heterodox regimes can “leak out” and affect individuals who are not the targets of these policies. For example, heterosexual women may be negatively affected by circumstances that are more restrictive to LGBT rights as part of a system that reinforces sexism and heterosexuality.
Future research should examine the impact of heterotrophic regimens on additional health effects, along with other structural imbalances such as racism, immigrant-related stigma, and transgender oppression.
First author was Bethany G. Everett, University of Utah, Salt Lake City and coauthors were Aubrey Limburg, University of Colorado Boulder, and Patricia Homan, Florida State University, Tallahassee.
This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health’s Eunice Kennedy Shriver Institute of Child Health & Human Development (grant HD091405) and the Life Course Health Disparities and Dynamics in 21st Century America (granted). AG045061-06) from the National Institute on Aging. Philbin is supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (grant DA039804A).