Popular weight loss diets can affect gut health

An international research team led by Aurelie Cotillard and Patrick Veiga at Danone Nutricia Research in France examined the diets of 1800 adults in the American Gut Project, a research initiative that is conducting successful microbiological fraction of volunteer citizens.

The project was carried out in partnership with researchers at the University of California San Diego (UC San Diego), whose contributions are coordinated by the Microbiome Innovation Center at UC San Diego.

Using surveys of food consumption, researchers divided study participants into five groups based on their long-term diets:

?? Plants: Mostly vegetarians and vegans, who consume little or no meat and eat a lot of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. This diet has the most fiber of the four other diets.

?? Flexible dieters: People who eat a lot of plant-based foods, but still incorporate some meat and large amounts of dairy foods.

?? The Health Conscious American Diet: A diet rich in nuts, whole grains, and dairy foods, but also high in sweets and refined grains and low in vegetables.

?? Standard American Diet: These people had the poorest dietary quality of all groups, including the highest consumption of sugary drinks and processed foods and low levels of diversity. of the plant-based foods consumed, as well as the lowest amount of dietary fiber.

?? Exclusion Diet: This restrictive diet had the lowest carbohydrate content and highest in fat and animal products compared to all other models. It hardly includes starchy foods or sweet products.

Analysis of the study participants’ gut microbiota showed that gut microbiota alpha diversity (a measure of different types of bacteria), in the standard American diet is significantly lower than in the flexitarian diet, consisting of a mixture of animal and plant foods, including large amounts of dairy products.

Additionally, people who ate low-carb from the exclusion diet had the lowest relative abundance of Bifidobacterium, a type of beneficial bacteria found in the gut. Overall, this highlights that some diets may be more microbiome-friendly than others.

In this study, the researchers also found that the overall diet exhibited a better association with the gut microbiome than individual dietary components, such as nutrients. fiber or protein alone.

“The association between habitual diet and gut microbiota is of great interest, however, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to use such an approach. this and identify dietary patterns that provide the best association with gut microbiota,” said Patrick Veiga, PhD, Director of Health Sciences and Microbiology at Danone Nutricia Research, author main of the study said.

This study, together with previous research, reinforces that A healthy gut microbiome is supported by a balance between all the food groups, with no restrictions on high-fiber whole grain foods or animal products, like fully fermented dairy products..

The study also found that the gut microbiota alpha diversity of the plant-based diet and the standard American diet was similar, which could be explained by depletion of certain animal foods, such as meat and dairy products, in a plant-based diet. .

While intake and variety of fruits and vegetables has been reported to be the main factor associated with variations in the gut microbiota, animal protein has also been shown to increase diversity. form of microorganisms.

These results confirm that dietary assessment in general is important when studying the gut microbiome. It will also facilitate the design of more personalized dietary strategies in general populations.

Source: Medindia

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