Sticking points at the U.N. climate conference By Reuters
© Reuters. FILE PHOTO: A person smokes at a financial institution of the Huangpu river close to a coal-fired energy plant in Shanghai, China, October 14, 2021. REUTERS/Aly Tune
By Nina Chestney
LONDON (Reuters) – Representatives from almost 200 international locations will meet in Glasgow, Scotland, from Oct. 31-Nov. 12 for local weather talks to strengthen motion to deal with world warming beneath the 2015 Paris Settlement.
Amid excessive climate occasions all over the world and following a United Nations’ local weather report which warned that world warming was near spiralling uncontrolled, the actions of governments at this convention will decide whether or not it’s a success.
Listed below are a few of the points which have to be resolved:
EMISSIONS CUT PLEDGES
Six years in the past in Paris, international locations agreed to chop greenhouse gasoline emissions to restrict world warming to 2 levels Celsius and ideally 1.5C. To do that, emissions have to be lower in half by 2030 and attain net-zero by round mid-century.
Because the U.N. convention was postponed final 12 months as a result of coronavirus pandemic, this 12 months is the deadline for international locations to make steeper emissions lower pledges (known as nationally decided contributions or NDCs).
A U.N. evaluation of latest or revised NDCs submitted by the tip of July discovered that by 2030, these 113 international locations would collectively decrease their emissions by 12% from 2010 ranges.
However the accessible NDCs of all 191 events of the Paris Settlement mixed equate to a 16% improve in greenhouse gasoline emissions in 2030 in comparison with 2010, it stated.
Round 120 international locations have to date submitted revised NDCs, however there’s a lack of consistency with no frequent timeframe for realising pledges. There are additionally a wide range of approaches within the NDCs, making comparability tough.
Negotiators additionally have to agree on frequent timeframes for future emissions cuts.
Main emitters China, India, Saudi Arabia and Turkey – collectively liable for round a 3rd of worldwide greenhouse gasoline emissions – haven’t but come ahead with strengthened NDCs and wish to take action at this convention, often called COP26.
Way back to 2009, developed international locations agreed to boost $100 billion a 12 months by 2020 to assist creating international locations cope with the impacts of local weather change.
Nonetheless, the latest knowledge from the Organisation for Financial Co-operation and Growth (OECD) reveals that in 2019, developed nations’ governments raised $79.6 billion for susceptible international locations, up 2% from $78.3 billion in 2018.
As wealthy nations aren’t assembly the $100 billion a 12 months purpose, it may well break down belief on the local weather talks, consultants say. And a brand new finance purpose must be labored out for 2025 onwards.
LOSS AND DAMAGE
Governments agreed to deal with the influence of local weather change on creating international locations however there isn’t any element about legal responsibility or compensation, a bone of competition for a lot of poorer international locations.
A platform to allow technical help for susceptible international locations was established in 2019 however creating nations need a extra strong mechanism to incorporate financing.
The UK COP26 president, Alok Sharma, has stated he desires this convention to be the one the place coal energy is consigned to historical past.
The U.N. has known as for phasing out coal by 2030 in OECD international locations however surroundings ministers from the Group of 20 large economies have did not agree a timeline.
Article 6 of the Paris Settlement, which covers the function of carbon markets, has not been resolved for the reason that pact was struck. Progress on it broke down on the final talks in 2019.
The article requires “strong accounting” to keep away from “double counting” of emissions reductions. It additionally goals to determine a central U.N. mechanism to commerce carbon credit from emissions reductions generated from low-carbon tasks.