India and Pakistan were born 75 years ago from the bloody division of the subcontinent by British colonists, an event commonly known as the division.
Today, the two nuclear powers are deeply troubled neighbors, at odds primarily over the disputed territory of Kashmir.
Here are the key dates in the tense relationship between the nuclear-armed adversaries:
1947: Partition of India
On the night of August 14-15, 1947, Lord Louis Mountbatten, the last satrap of India, lowered the curtain on two centuries of British rule. The Indian subcontinent is divided into predominantly Hindu India and Muslim majority Pakistan.
A well-prepared partition turned life into chaos, displaced about 15 million people, and sparked sectarian bloodshed that killed nearly two million.
1949: Division of Kashmir
In late 1947, war broke out between the two neighbors in Kashmir, a Muslim-majority region of the Himalayas.
The 770 km (478 mi) long ceasefire line backed by the United Nations in January 1949 became the de facto border dividing the territory, now known as the Line of Control and heavily militarized for both beside.
About 37% of the territory is administered by Pakistan and 63% by India, both of which are claimed in its entirety.
1965: Second War
In August 1965, Pakistan launched a war against India for control of Kashmir. It ended inconclusively seven weeks after the Soviet Union brokered a cease-fire.
1971: Bangladesh was born
Neighbors went to war a third time in 1971 over Islamabad’s then rule in East Pakistan, with New Delhi supporting Bengali nationalists seeking independence for what March 1971 became Bangladesh. Three million people died in the short war.
1974: Nuclear race
India detonated its first atomic bomb in 1974, while Pakistan’s first public test would come in May 1998. India carried out five tests that year and Pakistan six. Corresponding to the sixth and seventh nuclear powers in the world, they cause concern and global sanctions.
1989: Kashmir Uprising
An uprising broke out in Indian-administered Kashmir against New Delhi’s rule in 1989, and thousands of fighters and civilians were killed in the following years as battles between security forces and Kashmiri rebels rattled the area.
Widespread human rights abuses were recorded on both sides of the conflict as the uprising took place.
Thousands of Hindu Kashmiris fled to other parts of India from 1990 on, fearing retaliatory attacks.
1999: The Kargil . Conflict
In 1999, Pakistani-backed rebels crossed the disputed Kashmir border, seizing Indian military posts atop the icy mountains of Kargil.
The Indian army repelled the intruders, ending a 10-week conflict that killed nearly 1,000 fighters and soldiers on both sides. The battle ended under pressure from the United States.
A series of attacks in 2001 and 2002, which India blamed on armed groups based in Pakistan, led to the mobilization of new troops by both sides.
A ceasefire was declared along the border in 2003, but a peace process launched the following year ended unfavorably.
2008: The Mumbai attacks
In November 2008, a group of armed attackers attacked the Indian city of Mumbai and killed 166 people. India blamed Pakistan’s intelligence agency for the attack and suspended peace talks.
Contacts continued into 2011, but the situation was worsened by sporadic skirmishes.
Indian Army conducts cross-border raids in Kashmir against separatist positions.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi made a surprise visit in December 2015 to Pakistan.
2019: Autonomy revoked
India vowed to retaliate after 41 paramilitary members were killed in a 2019 suicide attack in Kashmir claimed by an armed group based in Pakistan.
The two countries’ tit-for-tat air raids brought them to the brink of war.
Later that year, India abruptly revoked Kashmir’s limited autonomy under the constitution, imprisoning thousands of political opponents in the territory.
Authorities imposed what became the world’s longest internet outage, and troops were sent in to bolster the roughly half a million security forces already stationed there.
Tens of thousands of people, mostly civilians, have been killed since 1990 during the uprising.