Tuberculosis vaccine could aid future COVID-19 vaccine development

Dinler Amaral reports: “The protection against SARS-CoV-2 induced by BCG vaccination may be mediated by cross-reactive T lymphocytes, which recognize peptides displayed by Leukocyte Antigens Human (HLA-I) on the surface of infected cells,” said Antunes, assistant professor of computer biology and corresponding author of the work published in the journal Frontiers in Immunology.

Researchers from UH, the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, and Rice University performed a large-scale computational screening to identify potential targets with biochemical similarities between two diseases.

The results of the study were published in the journal Borders in Immunology.

T lymphocytes develop from stem cells and help protect the body from infection. T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 are critical to help resolve viral infections and protect against reinfection by providing long-lasting immunity.

Peptides are interconnected chains of amino acids that can be derived from viral proteins, as well as from host proteins.. HLAs are receptors that display these peptides to the immune system.

They screened more than 13.5 million possible cross-reactive peptide pairs from BCG and SARS-CoV-2. The analysis generated a large data set of cross-reactive clusters, eventually leading to the identification of 40 peptide pairs that were likely to cross-react with the BCG peptide.

The top 40 list includes SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides GEAANFCAL, GEVITFDNL, and FIAGLIAIV that have been shown to induce T-cell responses, Interferon Gamma (INF-γ) production, and increase lymphocytes in COVID-19 patients independently.

INF-γ is an important component of immunity against certain viral and bacterial infections.In addition, many peptides from our top 40 list have been reported to be able to activate T cells in recent studies analyzing aspects of cellular immunity in COVID-19 patients.

The development of peptide-based vaccines that target coronavirus and exhibit cross-reactivity with existing memory T-cells could represent an exciting strategy to complement and extend vaccine-induced protection. COVID-19 is available.

Source: Medindia


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