What role does vaping play in gum disease?
. Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for developing gum disease, but little is known about the effects of e-cigarettes.
To find out, researchers studied the oral health of 84 adults from three groups: smokers, e-cigarette users, and never-smokers.
Gum disease was assessed through two dental visits six months apart, during which plaque samples were taken to analyze the bacteria present.
All participants had some form of gum disease at the start of the study, with cigarette smokers having the most severe disease, followed by e-cigarette users. After six months, the researchers observed that gum disease got worse in several participants in each group, including some who used e-cigarettes.
A key sign of gum disease is clinical disintegration, as measured by gingival ligaments and tissue detaching from the tooth surface, causing the gums to recede and form pockets. These pockets are a breeding ground for bacteria and can lead to more serious gum disease.
They then analyzed the bacteria found in the plaque samples and determined that E-cigarette users have a different oral microbiome than smokers and non-smokers.
Several types of bacteria, including Selenomonas, Leptotrichia and Saccharibacteria, are more abundant in both smokers and smokers than in nonsmokers. Several other bacteria – including Fusobacterium and Bacterodales, which are known to be linked to gum disease – are particularly predominant in the mouths of e-cigarette users.
When plaque samples were collected and analyzed over six months of follow-up, the researchers found greater diversity in the bacteria for all the groups studied, yet each group maintained its microbiome. its own separate.
The researchers concluded that Differential oral microbiota of e-cigarette users induces altered immune responsesalong with clinical signs for gum disease illustrate how vaping presents its challenge to oral health.
Using e-cigarettes is a relatively new human habit. Unlike smoking, which has been studied extensively for decades, we know very little about the health consequences of e-cigarette use and are only just beginning to understand how the unique microbiome results from vaping. promote impact on oral health and disease.