Usually babies born premature or small are at a higher risk of dying. In contrast, in babies born with CZS, the risk was highest in those born at term or with normal birth weight (above 5.5 lbs) – 14.3 times and 12.9 times higher, respectively. with children in the group born without CZS, respectively.
The main causes of death in babies born with CZS are infectious diseases, diseases of the nervous system and congenital abnormalities – mainly sepsis, cerebral palsy and microcephaly.
Dr Enny Paixao Cruz, Assistant Professor at LSHTM and Research Associate at CIDACS, and first study author, said: “Many people may think that Zika is a disease of the past, but only in November this year there was a virus outbreak in the Indian city of Kanpur, with almost 100 cases.For the most vulnerable in society and our parents, that is. remains a global concern.
Zika virus is transmitted by the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. For many people, it is harmless and has no symptoms, but if passed from mother to child through the placenta, it can cause birth defects such as microcephaly, other birth defects and birth defects. swallow.
To fill this hugely important knowledge gap, the researchers looked at more than 11 million babies born in Brazil between 2015 and 2018. They explored the link between mortality rates. and CZS, using data from public health records, live births, and deaths.
The team looked at babies with different birth weights, gestational age at birth (preterm or full term), and size for gestational age, comparing the babies’ risk of dying with this syndrome in children without CZS.
Of the more than 3,000 babies born with CZS, nearly 20% were born preterm, 36% were classified as low birth weight (less than 3.3lbs) and 37% low for gestational age.. This compares with 10% of premature births and 7% of low birth weight and small for gestational age in infants born without CZS.
A similar mortality risk was observed for infants born with or without CZS if born prematurely (before 32 weeks of gestation) or with low birth weight. Mortality rates in very small preterm infants without CZS are very high, much higher than those of full-term infants, catching up with mortality rates in CZS infants.
The researchers found no statistically significant difference between the risk of death for babies born with or without microcephaly, suggesting it did not pose an additional risk for the child. However, this may be due to the inability of the study to observe this difference. Hence it still needs to be better investigated.
The increased risk of death of live births with Congenital Zika Syndrome compared with those without the syndrome highlights the need to develop and implement postpartum medical care protocols, including preventive measures. Early intervention can help reduce sequelae and side effects and improve survival in these children.